The Second Caliph, 'Umar A. The Third Caliph, Uthman A. The Fourth Caliph, Ali A. The title 'Khalifatu Rasulil-lah'. The Significance of the Caliphate The mission of Prophet Muhammad peace be on himlike that of the earlier messengers of God, was to call people to the worship of and submission to the One True God. In practice, submission to God means to obey His injunctions as given in the Holy Qur'an and as exemplified by Sunnah the practice of the Prophet.
As successor to the Prophet, the Caliph was the head of the Muslim community and his primary responsibility was to continue in the path of the Prophet. Since religion was perfected and the door of Divine revelation was closed at the death of the Prophet, the Caliph was to make all laws in accordance with the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
He was a ruler over Muslims but not their sovereign since sovereignty belongs to God alone. He was to be obeyed as long as he obeyed God. He was responsible for creating and maintaining conditions under which it would be easy for Muslims to live according to Islamic principles, and to see that justice was done to all.
Abu Bakr, at the time he accepted the caliphate, stated his position thus: "The weak among you shall be strong with me until their rights have been vindicated; and the strong among you shall he weak with me until, if the Lord wills, I have taken what is due from them Obey me as long as I obey God and His Messenger.
When I disobey Him and His Prophet, then obey me not. All four were among thc earliest and closest Companions of the Prophet peace be on him. They lived simple and righteous lives and strove hard for the religion of God. Their justice was impartial, their treatment of others was kind and merciful, and they were one with the people - the first among equals.
After these four, the later Caliphs assumed the manners of kings and emperors and the true spirit of equality of ruler and ruled diminished to a considerable extent in the political life of Muslims.
It should be clearly understood that the mission of Prophet Muhammad peace be on himand hence that of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, was not political, social or economic reform, although such reforms were a logical consequence of the success of this mission, nor the unity of a nation and the establishment of an empire, although the nation did unite and vast areas came under one administration, nor the spread of a civilization or culture, although many civilizations and cultures developed, but only to deliver the message of God to all the peoples of the world and to invite them to submit to Him, while being the foremost among those who submitted.
What About the Present? The primary responsibility of an Islamic government is still the same as it was in the days of the early Caliphs: to make all laws in accordance with the Qur'an and the Sunnah, to make positive efforts to create and maintain conditions under which it will be possible and easy for Muslims to live an Islamic life, to secure impartial and speedy justice for all, and to strive hard in the path of God.
Any government which is committed to such a policy is truly following the message delivered by the Prophet peace be on him. When he came to know of the Prophet's passing, Abu Bakr hurried to the house of sorrow. When Abu Bakr came out of the Prophet's apartment and broke the news, disbelief and dismay gripped the community of Muslims in Medina. Muhammad peace be on him had been the leader, the guide and the bearer of Divine revelation through whom they had been brought from idolatry and barbarism into the way of God.
The Four Caliphs
How could he die? Even Umar, one of the bravest and strongest of the Prophet's Companions, lost his composure and drew his sword and threatened to kill anyone who said that the Prophet was dead. Abu Bakr gently pushed him aside, ascended the steps of the lectern in the mosque and addressed the people, saying "O people, verily whoever worshipped Muhammad, behold!
Muhammad is indeed dead. But whoever worships God, behold!
God is alive and will never die. Many Messengers have gone before him; if then he dies or is killed, will you turn back upon your heels?But who was Abu Bakr RAand why was he one the greatest companions. Why is he still remembered today by so many Muslims around the world? He was the first man to accept Islam.
When the Prophet SWS told the pagans of his journey, they mocked him. Abu Bakr RA was known for his generosity. On seeing this situation Abu Bakr stood and recited this verse:. So what if he dies or is killed! Will you then turn your back on your heels as disbelievers? And he who turns back on his heels will not do the least harm to Allah. And Allah give reward to those who are grateful. He was caliph for two years before passing away. But only as a reminder to those who fear Allah. A revelation from him Allah who created the earth and the high heavens.
The most Gracious Allah rose over the throne In a manner that suits his Majesty. Umar RA was nicknamed Al-Farooq. He was twelve years younger than the Prophet SWS.
Umar RA was a staunch enemy of Islam before accepting it. The famous story of how he accepted Islam is well known. He was to become the second caliph of Islam after the death of Abu Bakr RA ; he would be caliph for ten years after being assassinated by a Christian slave. Umar RA was known for many achievements during his rule. Not only did he conquer many nations, he opened Jerusalem, he paved roads for Muslims in Medina and he was also known to start the Islamic calendar during his rule.
He was the fifth person to accept Islam. Uthman RA will be famously remembered by the Muslims for his generosity. Uthman was a wealthy merchant and would be spend a lot of his wealth in the way of Allah and his Prophet SWS. One famous story of Uthman RA generosity I would like to mention.
Four Caliphs of Islam
It was for the battle of Tabuk, During this time things were not well for some of the believers as most of them were suffering from poverty, and the Prophet Muhammad SWS wanted to launch an attack against the Arab vassals of the Roman empire, the reason for this was because the Prophet had heard that the Romans were preparing to wage war against the Muslims so the Prophet SWS wanted to deter them.
Due to the poverty many Muslims could not join the exhibitions.The four caliphs were more political figures than spiritual leaders. By military force the first caliph, Abu Bakr, brought all the tribes in the Arabian peninsula under the rule of Islam.
Under the second caliph Omar or Hadrat Umar Farooq — a phenomenal expansion began, which continued for about a hundred years. The Muslim armies defeated the armies of the Sassanian Persian and Byzantine empires. Northward they occupied Syria, and Damascus was the capital of the Umayyad Dynasty — Only Europe would remain virtually untouched. After the assassination of Othman or Hadrat Uthman, the third caliph, inincreasing tension arose within the Muslim community.
This ended in a civil war and division which still exists up to this present day throughout the Muslim world. The Shiites, the followers of Ali, the fourth caliph and first convert to Islam, became strong opposers of the Umayyads the tribe from which the third caliph came. Your ministry contains great information and I agree very much that we need to pray for the souls of Muslims and this too has been an endeavor that I am involved in. Your email address will not be published.
This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. We respect your privacy. The second Caliph Omar Under the second caliph Omar or Hadrat Umar Farooq — a phenomenal expansion began, which continued for about a hundred years. The third Caliph Othman and division After the assassination of Othman or Hadrat Uthman, the third caliph, inincreasing tension arose within the Muslim community. The fourth Caliph Ali and the Shiites The Shiites, the followers of Ali, the fourth caliph and first convert to Islam, became strong opposers of the Umayyads the tribe from which the third caliph came.
Comments which masjid is this. Trackbacks […] — which is precisely what it is has been in fits and starts since the year Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Footer Search the Site Search this website.Four Caliphs of Islam — The death of Muhammad caught the young Muslim community unprepared and threw it into confusion. Some even had difficulty accepting that he really had died. Dissension arose between different groups claiming the right of succession.
Three main contending parties emerged:. The same word is used to denote the uniqueness of human beings as vicegerents of God the Christian equivalent to this idea is the concept that we are created in the image of God.Islamic Caliphate
The first Four Caliphs of Islam, who occupy a special place in Islam, are referred to as Al- Khulafa-ur-Rashidun the Rightly Guided Caliphs because they are deemed to have faithfully followed the example of Muhammad in leading the Muslim community of which they were the religious, political, military and judicial heads. The first amongst Four Caliphs of Islam of the Rightly Guided Khalifs was Abu Bakr, who is said to have been a merchant who used his wealth to support the cause of Islam.
He gave his daughter Aisha to Muhammad in marriage, and she became his favourite wife. They refused to pay zakat and attacked Muslim tax collectors. Prophets of all kinds appeared, claiming the allegiance of various groups. He accomplished this with the help of Khalid ibn al-Walid, a skilful and ruthless commander. Abu Bakr then set out to expand the Islamic domain outside Arabia.
He captured southern Iraq in with the help of the Lakhmids, the Arab allies of Persia, and then successfully attacked the Byzantine Empire, with the help of the Arab Ghassanids. This victory opened Palestine to the Muslims. He initially persecuted Muslim converts, but after his conversion he used his wealth to support the cause of Islam. He also gave his daughter Hafsa in marriage to Muhammad. He captured Damascus with little resistance in There he divided the churches equally between Christians and Muslims, and arranged for one half of the Cathedral of St.
John the Baptist to be used as a mosque, while the other half remained a church. This arrangement continued for about eighty years until the whole building was converted into the mosque that is now known as the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus.
Jerusalem surrendered and the Christians there were treated with kindness. He therefore offered his prayers outside, on the spot where the Al-Aqsa Mosque stands today. He also set in place the various administrative and judicial structures of the empire.
He divided the empire into provinces, appointed governors, and set up departments to control the treasury, army and public revenues. He arranged for regular salaries to be paid to soldiers. He is also credited with the expulsion of Christians and Jews from the Arabian Peninsula.
A pact known as the Covenant of Umar, which he is said to have authored, spelt out discriminatory and humiliating conditions under which Christians and Jews could live under Islamic rule. He died in after being attacked by a Christian slave although some sources say that the slave was Zoroastrian. One of these men, Abdul Rahman, withdrew his name from consideration. The others then authorised him to appoint the next caliph.It effected the expansion of the Islamic state beyond Arabia into IraqSyriaPalestine, EgyptIranand Armenia and, with it, the development of an elite class of Arab soldiers.
Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Rashidun caliphs. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: caliph. Caliphin Islamic history the ruler of the Muslim community.
Islamic worldthe complex of societies and cultures in which Muslims and their faith have been prevalent and socially dominant. Adherence to Islam is a global phenomenon: Muslims predominate in some 30 to 40 countries, from the Atlantic eastward to the Pacific and….
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Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Article History.Find inspiration in the blessed lives of the Rightly-Guided Four Caliphs. Take this course for insight into the magnificent lives of those closest to the Prophet may Allah bless him and give him peace. Going in the order of superiority, from Abu Bakr to 'Umar to 'Uthman to 'Ali, this course not only provides the biographical details of the lives of the khulafa caliphs but also shines light on their virtues and outstanding qualities, all the things that made them so special and granted them such a high station in this world and the hereafter.
A comprehensive course covering the lives of the first four Caliphs in Islam, collectively known as the Rightly Guided Caliphs. The Messenger of Allah may Allah bless him and give him peace said in a hadith:.
Adhere to them and hold fast to them. The Four Caliphs. The Messenger of Allah may Allah bless him and give him peace said in a hadith: So hold fast to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs who will come after me. Learn what really happened with Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him, and the fitna corruption that started afterward.
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Search the whole site. Muhammad and the caliphate: from There is no clear successor to Muhammad among his followers.
Four Caliphs of Islam
The likely candidates include Abu Bakr the father of Muhammad's wife A'isha and Ali a cousin of Muhammad and the husband of Muhammad's daughter Fatima. Abu Bakr is elected, and takes the title 'khalifat rasul-Allah'. The Arabic phrase means 'successor of the Messenger of God'. It will introduce a new word, caliph, to the other languages of the world. Abu Bakr, the first caliph, lives no more than two years after the death of Muhammad. Even so, within this brief time Muslim armies have begun their astonishing expansion, subduing the whole of Arabia and striking as far north as Palestine.
Abu Bakr is succeeded in by Omar another father-in-law of Muhammadwho in captures Jerusalem.
Early Islamic World
Six years later Omar is stabbed and killed in the mosque at Medina - for personal reasons, it seems, by a Persian craftsman living in Kufa. Othman, chosen as the third caliph, is a son-in-law of Muhammad. By the end of his reign, inArabs have conquered as far afield as north Africa, Turkey and Afghanistan. Othman, like his predecessor, is assassinated - but this time by rebellious Muslims. They choose alianother son-in-law of Muhammad, as the fourth caliph. For the first time within the Muslim community the selected caliph is the choice of just one faction.
Ali's caliphate eventually provokes the only major sectarian split in the history of Islam, between Sunni and Shi'a see The Shi'as. Raised to the position of caliph by rebels, Ali spends most of his reign in conflict with other Muslims. He wins the first battle, near Basra inagainst an army fighting in support of Muhammad's widow, A'isha.
She is herself in the fray, riding a camel, with the result that the event is remembered as the 'battle of the camel'. But it is Ali's last success.
The governor of Syria, Mu'awiya, wages a prolonged campaign against him to avenge the murder of the caliph Othmanhis kinsman. Other opponents succeed in assassinating Ali, inoutside the mosque in Kufa - a Muslim garrison town to which he has moved the capital from Medina.